The European Data Protection Summit will address the intrinsic links between successful cybersecurity procedures and strategies and good data protection practices, as well as analysing how these two imperative functions can aid each other’s success.
The Summit will cover a range of topics including:
- How collaboration between the CISO and the Data Protection Officer should work
- How to build and sustain a Robust Breach Response Programme
- Data privacy vs. data security – they are not the same, but how do you differ strategies and procedures?
- How to create an effective incident response plan
- Compliance is a requirement, not an option and GDPR compliance is a security problem
- This chapter explores the impact of the free flow of data across national borders on innovation and growth. First reviewed is the literature on the impact of cross-border data flows on countries, companies, and individuals. The chapter then presents an original analysis of the growth of new services built on the free flow of trade through global digitization, and concludes by discussing policy guidelines that mitigate national concerns over data transmission while simultaneously maximizing the benefits of cross-border data flows.
- The growth of global digital industries and their national economic impacts
- The development of the commercial Internet has occurred concurrently with a massive expansion of the global economy, which has experienced 6.6-fold growth in nominal terms—from US$11.1 trillion to US$73.5 trillion since 1980.5 Internet protocol (IP) traffic continues to advance rapidly, with 2019 traffic projected to be 64 times its 2005 volume.6 Global Internet bandwidth accounts for much of this growth, more than quadrupling between 2010 (<50 terabytes per second) and 2014 (>200 terabytes per second).7 More importantly, total cross-border Internet traffic increased 18-fold from 2005 to 2012.8
- This cumulative growth impacts all facets of national economies, not just their budding technology sectors—in fact, an estimated 75 percent of the Internet’s benefit is captured by companies in traditional industries.9 A wide range of positive economic impacts stems from the flow of digital data across borders. For example, 61 percent (US$383.7 billion) of total US service exports were digitally delivered in 2012, and 53 percent of total US imports were digitally delivered.10In absolute terms, the amount of digitally delivered exports and imports is even larger in the European Union, which digitally delivered US$465 billion in exports in 2012 and spent US$297 billion on imports. Digital trade is credited with an estimated increase in US gross domestic product (GDP) of 3.4 percent to 4.8 percent in 2011 and with the creation of up to 2.4 million jobs, according to the United States International Trade Commission (US ITC).11The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) also estimates that about 50 percent of all traded services is enabled by innovation stemming from the technology sector, which includes the facilitation of cross-border data flows.12According to a newly released report by McKinsey & Company, data flows account for US$2.8 trillion of global GDP in 2014 and “cross-border data flows now generate more economic value than traditional flows of traded goods.”13
- Beyond this economic impact, the free flow of data is, itself, a significant driver of innovation. It allows the sharing of ideas and information and the dissemination of knowledge as well as collaboration and cross-pollination among individuals and companies. Internet-enabled innovation requires an environment that encourages individuals to experiment with new uses of the Internet. In places with severe restrictions that inhibit digital collaboration, people are less likely to experiment and, as a result, innovation is less likely to emerge. Countries with an open Internet tend to be more innovative, as demonstrated in Figure 1, which illustrates the relationship between a country’s ability to share information and its capacity for innovation. The figure demonstrates that countries with a higher capacity to share data internationally (as reflected by a high international Internet bandwidth capacity per capita) tend to have a greater degree of national innovation as well, quantified in the figure by each country’s score on the 2015 Global Innovation Index, a leading measure of innovation capacity at the country level, which is calculated according to 79 different indicators.14